[Rhonda]: So the all-cause mortality is also
interesting because your study showed that, again, there was a dose-dependent effect where
men that used the sauna two to three times a week had a 24% lower all-cause mortality
than men using it one time a week. And I believe it was men using it four to
seven times a week was a 40% lower all-cause mortality? [Jari]: Yeah, it was…yeah, yeah. We’re calling those dose-response relation. [Rhonda]: Right, yeah. So you’re getting ready to publish…a paper
was accepted that you’re going to publish, which will probably be published by the time
this video is published, so that’s really exciting. So you found that sauna use is associated
with lower Alzheimer’s disease and dementia. That is extremely interesting to me because,
you know, of my interest in heat shock proteins. So the sauna, one of the most robust molecular
mechanisms, you know, that happens upon heat stress. So when you heat-stress the body, what happens
is that you activate a signaling pathway called heat shock proteins. They play a very important role in maintaining
the three-dimensional structure of a protein, which is important, obviously, for protein’s
function, but it’s also very important for the half-life of the protein. And when the three-dimensional structure of
a protein becomes misfolded because of damage that’s occurring, you know, damage that, damage
their DNA, the same damage that does that damages these proteins, you know, by-products
of normal metabolism. Reactive oxygen species, by-products of, you
know, immune activation, these things are damaging our proteins, our DNA, our cells. But heat shock…so when those proteins become
damaged, they misfold, and they don’t get degraded properly. So when this happens in brain, you know, proteins
can start to then aggregate and form these plaques, protein aggregates and plaques. So probably the most well-known one is amyloid-beta
42, which is associated with Alzheimer’s disease. But interestingly, heat shock proteins, what
their function is inside of the cell is to actually repair a misfolded protein so that
it maintains its proper three-dimensional structure again. So they’re basically preventing the protein
aggregation, and this has been shown in multiple studies in rodents, in lower organisms. There’s been many, many studies, associated
studies looking at heat shock proteins and neurodegenerative diseases. So there is a lot of interest in how heat
shock proteins may be a therapeutic target for preventing neurodegenerative diseases
like Alzheimer’s and also Parkinson’s disease. And I’ve always thought, you know, the connection
between knowing the sauna activates heat shock proteins, I mean, that’s their name, you know? They’re activated under conditions of stress,
particularly heat stress. So I think that would be a very interesting
thing to look at. [Jari]: I think there some interesting findings,
some acute changes after sauna use. [Rhonda]: After just a single session? [Jari]: Yeah, single session, in vessel and
vessel function. [Rhonda]: Oh, wow. [Jari]: And also heart rate. There is a gradual increase in heart rate
during the sauna, single sauna session.