You This program second in the series understanding nutrition we examine the role of protein than the diet of the remnant Animals need three basic components in their feed for the maintenance of their body condition and for their growth and production These are energy protein and vitamins and minerals You Proteins pay both structural and functional roles in the bodies of all animals Structural proteins include those found in skin in muscle cartilage hair and wool Functional proteins include those such as enzymes and hormones Enzymes are involved in all sorts of chemical reactions in their bodies whilst hormones regulate processes such as growth and reproduction Animal products such as meat milk and eggs contain proteins Proteins are complex molecules made up of basic units call a minor essence Amino acids are made basically of the elements of nitrogen hydrogen carbon and oxygen joined together The amount of nitrogen in a protein can be measured by chemical means And this forms the basis of the estimation of crude protein in feeds There are 25 amino acids Which are found in various combinations of hundreds of units make up the various animal proteins? How then can animals be provided with the protein that they need in the first video in this series we examine differences in the eating habits of various animals and This was explained in terms of differences in their digestive systems in the case of intensively managed animals such as pigs and poultry Specific information on their requirements for total protein as well as individual amino acids is available Therefore the protein requirements of different classes of these animals can be met by specially formulated diets fed to me Such precise information not available to the grazing animals Different protein quality Furthermore they have to accept some modification of their protein quality chute breakdown in the rumen by microbes Let’s now take a look at what happens to protein in the feed of sheep and cattle We saw in the earlier program that ruminant animals like cattle and sheep have a large fermentation VAT called a rumen in their digestive system It is in the rumen of cattle and sheep that a large population of microorganisms bacteria single-cell organisms and fungi start the fermentation process The breakdown of the carbohydrates in the feed gives simple organic acids known as Volatile fatty acids which are absorbed and used in the animal as a source of energy On the other hand the breakdown of the protein component of the feed is a bit more complex If the proteins in the feed are soluble they are fermented in the room and by the microorganisms in a manner similar to carbohydrates to give rise to a minor acids and then ammonia If the dietary proteins are not easily broken down in the rumen. They escape microbial action and passed through unchanged When they reached the fourth stomach and small intestine They are digested by the animals own digestive enzymes into simple amino acids These amino acids in turn are then absorbed and used as the building blocks by the animal for the manufacture of its own proteins the breakdown and fermentation of feed protein in the rumen is in fact a process of degradation The portion of dietary protein that is degraded in the rumen is therefore called rumen degradable protein or our DP and A portion that is not degraded in the rumen is called under graded dietary protein or you D P This portion of dietary protein is also commonly referred to as bypass protein Some of the feed protein remains undigested, and this is excreted in the manure, and is thus unavailable to the animal Depending on the extent to which proteins are broken down in the rumen the degradability Proteins will supply different amounts of UDP to the animal Food quality green pasture for instance Contains a very high protein content but as much as 70 percent of this is broken down in the rumen with only 30% leaving as UDP that is as four chains of proteins Protein sources such as fish meal on the other hand are the level rumen degradability and thus supply a large proportion of UDP Compared to the highly degradable proteins of sunflower meal and peanut meal Some feed proteins can be modified by treatment with heat over the chemicals such as formaldehyde So that their degradation in the rumen is restricted Protein protected in this way is subjected to normal breakdown in the fourth stomach or abomasum Which is similar to our own stomach and the small intestine? Examples of protected protein are heat treated soybean and formaldehyde treated sunflower meal Certain methods of storage of conserved forage have also been shown to decrease the breakdown The high dry matter content and the gentle fermentation of harvest or haylage appears to do this a portion of ammonia released through breakdown of protein in the rumen is used as a source of nitrogen by the microorganisms in the rumen for the manufacture of their own body protein and for their own reproduction using energy released through the fermentation of carbohydrates Live and dead microorganisms in the rumen are constantly carried through to the rest of the digestive system Where their bodies are used by the animal as a protein source? the ruminant Also has a means of conserving nitrogen particularly during critical times of protein shortage in the feed such as a drought By recycling the urea in the blood into the rumen either in saliva or by diffusion from the blood in this way the supply of nitrogen to the Microorganisms is maintained even when the dietary supply is low The recycled urea contributes to the ammonia pool in the rumen for microbial protein synthesis The protein needs of a ruminant animal are therefore derived from two sources One is the portion of the feed protein that reaches past the rumen undegraded the bypass protein and the other protein is derived from digestion of the microbial organisms, that is microbial protein We have already seen that rumen micro organisms require a source of nitrogen such as ammonia for the synthesis of the microbial proteins For normal or even functioning a vigorous microbial population is necessary And as such there needs to be a supply of ammonia And mineral elements such as sulfur to maintain normal rumen functions such as fermentation However it is not always essential the bit ammonia be in the form of the breakdown of dietary protein Indeed lumen microorganisms can use ammonia from non. Protein sources such as urea and bi yet These substances collectively known as non-protein, nitrogen Can be provided in the diet of a ruminant to meet some of the nitrogen requirements of microorganisms? It is indeed a cheap way of utilizing the room and microbes to convert non-protein, nitrogen sources like urea into higher-quality animal protein through the synthesis of microbial protein It is often used in a drought as a supplement to very low quality grass Which otherwise would not be able to maintain the microbes in the rumen healthy? Ruminants at a moderate level of production such as mature cattle and cows in early pregnancy or late lactation Can be supplied with all of their protein requirements in the form of microbial protein from synthesis in the rumen? On the other hand ruminants at a high level of production such as growing cattle and cows and late pregnancy and early lactation Have a demand for protein that cannot be met only by microbial proteins synthesized In these instances extra protein needs to be supplied in the form of UDP or bypass protein preferably in the diet Protein is a valuable component of feed which however can easily be lost through grazing or conservation The main ways in which it is lost are Allowing the plant to go to head or to flower for when the vegetative phase ends protein levels drop off markedly And the drying of hay causes the leaves to become brittle and fragile And this can result in large losses during raking or baling processes In addition the extended wilting time in wind rows is responsible for a reduction in protein Where air is able to penetrate silages or hay made too wet without a quality preservative? the resulting bacterial activity gives off heat Heat is a great destroyer of protein breaking it down rapidly into its basic elements To overcome these problems Farmers should aim to cut and conserve excess forages and legumes before the heads of flowers emerge Having done this the ideal way to conserve these forages is that medium moisture between 40 and 50 percent Where over drying is not required and leaf losses are minimized? This product is termed. Haylage are But must be conserved in a harvest or system to avoid aeration during storage and feeding out Haylage will not successfully compact to exclude the air in a pit or bunker and Excess heating would result if the farmer attempts to store it in a pit Silage and hay must also be carefully made to avoid protein loss Silence must be rolled and well sealed and a suitable silage additive may be used to assist rapid preservation to reduce leaf losses in hay associated with over drying a quality Non-volatile hay preservative can be applied at baling to allow hay to be made at moisture levels up to 30% This tape has shown that protein like energy is a very important component of animal feeds for pigs and poultry these proteins must supply particular amino acids to meet the specific needs of those animals for Ruminants this is less critical because of the activities of rumen microorganisms for ruminants then protein can be classified into rumen degradable proteins or RDP and under gradable dietary proteins UDP which are also called bypass proteins It is important to realize that the utilization of both protein and energy must be considered together for the effective utilization of one depends on the supply of the other and possibly to on minerals and trace elements and That will be the topic of the third tape in this series